Crankshaft Grinding & Repair Services | Crankshaft Reconditioning | Crankpin Machining – RA Power Solutions

RA Power Solutions undertakes onsite crankshaft grinding and repair, crankpin reconditioning and crankpin machining up to the diameter of 700 mm. It is observed that due to serious accident sometimes the radius fillet of the crankpin or main journal is damaged and it is difficult to undertake the crankshaft grinding and repair onsite without removing the crankshaft from the engine block and transporting it to the designated workshop.

Inspection, Grinding & Polishing of Crankpin is in Process
Inspection, Grinding & Polishing of Crankpin is in Process

With more than forty years of experience in this field, we have added a portable onsite crankshaft grinding and polishing machine which can undertake crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing without taking the reference of radius fillet of the crankpin or crank main journal thus saving the crankshaft from rejection.

Inspection of Crankpin on Board a Vessel
Inspection of Crankpin on Board a Vessel
Inspection of Crankpins is in Process
Inspection of Crankpins is in Process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is our experience that the cost of the crankshaft is very high and in case of high capacity engines it works out to be 20 to 25% cost of the engine. Considering this fact, it is most important that the job of crankshaft grinding and crankshaft repair is entrusted to the company which has experience of repairing the crankshaft successfully. With the experience of four decades in this field and successfully repaired more than 10,000 crankshafts we are considered to be leaders in this field and are trusted by the shipping companies, diesel power plants and engine manufacturer for repair of crankshaft strictly as per the specifications and tolerances stipulated by the manufacturer.

The timely inspection and repair of the crankshaft are again of great importance. We have a team of engineers who can fly in a short notice for the inspection and repair of the crankshaft to any part of the world. The crankshaft repair undertaken by us is guaranteed for satisfactory performance.

Onsite Crankshaft Grinding Machine
Onsite Crankshaft Grinding Machine

Our crankshaft grinding services have the following features:

I) Onsite machining, grinding and polishing of crankpins up to 700 mm.
II) Onsite machining, grinding and polishing of all cylindrical shafts including turbine, alternator, pump shafts, tail shaft up to the diameter of 700 mm.
III) Repair of radius fillet by grinding and polishing.
IV) Portable pneumatically, lightweight crankshaft grinding machine which can be taken to any site all over the world.

All technicians having valid CDC can sail on the vessel.

Author of the blog is Mr. Raj Shahani, Managing Director of the company. He is having 40 years of experience in providing services related to engine repair and overhauling, crankshaft grinding and polishing, crankpin reconditioning and many more.

For any queries, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Crankpin after Repair by Onsite Crankshaft Grinding Machine
Crankpin after Repair by Onsite Crankshaft Grinding Machine
Grinding & Repair of Crankpin on Board a Vessel
Grinding & Repair of Crankpin on Board a Vessel

Crankshaft Grinding | Crankshaft Grinding Services | Crankshaft Machining – RA Power Solutions

RA Power solutions undertake crankshaft repair, crankshaft grinding and polishing onsite all over the world. Company is extending 24/7 emergency service for repair of crankshaft of main and auxiliary engines on board a vessel or for the land-based installations worldwide. We are having experience of 40 years in the field of engine repair and with the latest technology of the equipments we are considered to be most knowledgeable company in the world. Our response time in case of emergency is unbeatable. We have developed onsite portable, lightweight crankshaft grinding machines up to the diameter of 700 mm which is kept ready all the time to be taken on the vessel or to any Diesel Engine installation all over the world.

Repair, Grinding & Polishing of Crankpin
Repair, Grinding & Polishing of Crankpin
 The client has definite advantage of awarding crankshaft repair, crankshaft grinding, and crankshaft machining work to us as we have carried out repair of over 10000 crankshafts having serious damage and were saved from rejection. We are confident of our workmanship and design of equipment and can repair your shaft successfully without stripping it down from the engine and transporting it to the workshop.

Following procedure is adopted for successful repair of crankshaft:

I) Calibrated and modern instruments are used to undertake preliminary inspection of the crankshaft as following:

a) Dimensional inspection to check taper and ovality
b) Crack detection by MPI/ultrasound or dye penetrant
c) Hardness test
d) Surface test to check surface roughness
e) Inspection to check the straightness of crankshaft
f) Lube oil and radius fillet profile check
g) Visual inspection

Inspection of Crankpin Before Grinding
Inspection of Crankpin Before Grinding
Inspection of Crankpin on Board a Vessel
Inspection of Crankpin on Board a Vessel

II) All the readings and observations are recorded in the inspection format and onsite repair planning is done in consultation with our senior Engineer.

Grinding of Crankpin is in Process
Grinding of Crankpin is in Process
Grinding & Polishing of Crankshaft by Crankshaft Grinding Machine
Grinding & Polishing of Crankshaft by Crankshaft Grinding Machine
III) After inspection, grinding, and repair of crankshaft, the following parameters are achieved:

a) Taper and ovality of crankpin and main journal after grinding and polishing can be achieved within 0.02 mm.b) Lubrication oil hole and radius fillet profile can be given as per the original profile.

c) Presence of crack and hardness readings are taken and recorded.

d) Straightness and runout are maintained as per the manufacturer’s specifications.

e) Surface finish of less than 20 RA value can be maintained and achieved.

Crankpin After Grinding
Crankshaft Radius Under Machining
Inspection of Crankshaft After Grinding on Board a Vessel
Inspection of Crankshaft After Grinding on Board a Vessel
All the crankshaft repair, crankshaft grinding and polishing jobs executed by RA Power Solutions are guaranteed for the satisfactory performance. Price wise we are considered to be the lowest in the international market.

Author of the blog is Mr. Raj Shahani, Managing Director of the company. He is having 40 years of experience in providing engine repair services all over the world.

For more information regarding crankshaft repair, crankshaft grinding and polishing, crankshaft machining and other engine repair services, please feel free to write to us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Crankpin Reconditioning | Crankpin Polishing and Onsite Crank pin Repair – RA Power Solutions

RA Power Solutions has now made it easy to undertake crankpin grinding, crank pin repair and crank pin polishing onsite in a short time with the lowest cost.

 

We undertake onsite crankpin repair, crankpin grinding and crankpin polishing of crankshaft diameter ranging from 30 mm to 700 mm. This is undertaken by lightweight, easy to operate and portable onsite crankshaft grinding machine which is taken to the site. We have team of experienced technicians having valid passport and CDC. They can travel to any destination in the world in the shortest possible time with portable crankshaft grinding equipment and can also undertake repairs while sailing of vessel. Following procedure is generally followed for successful repair of crankpin of crankshaft  onsite:

Crack Detection Test of Crankpin
Crack Detection Test of Crankpin

I) Initial dimensional inspection of crankpin is undertaken by calibrated measuring instruments for taper, ovality and other parameters.

II) Radius fillet, lubricating oil hole of crankpin is checked for any loss of profile and damage.

 

III) Crack detection test by high-intensity MPI torch is undertaken by level 3 qualified technicians.

 

IV) Hardness check and other important parameters are checked and recorded.

 

After the initial inspection in case required grinding and polishing of crankpin is undertaken maintaining the tolerances strictly as per the manufacturer’s specifications.

 

The onsite crankshaft grinding machine used by RA Power Solutions engineers for grinding and polishing of crankpin is self-designed and is improved from time to time.

Inpection of Crankpin is in Process
Inspection of Crankpin is in Process
Onsite Inspection of Crankpin Before Grinding & Polishing
Onsite Inspection of Crankpin Before Grinding & Polishing

The combination of skilled technicians and most modern onsite crankshaft grinding machine is used for crank pin grinding delivers and maintains the tolerances after crank pin repair which is better than the international standards and the tolerances specified by the engine manufacturers. Our company is having more than four decades of experience in successful repairs of the crankshaft of  high capacity engines used for power generation, shipping, etc.

Grinding & Polishing of Crankpin on Board a Vessel
Grinding & Polishing of Crankpin on Board a Vessel
RA Power Solutions also provides the following onsite repair services:
I) Machining and grinding of crankpin journals up to 700 mm dia
II) Grinding of main journals
III) Machining and grinding of crankpin fillets
IV) Grinding and Machining of main journal fillets
V) Machining and grinding of intermediate shaft/tail shaft
VI) Grinding and polishing of crankshaft, turbine shaft, alternator shaft, pump shaft
VI) Metal stitching/metal locking of damaged casting
VII) Overhauling and Repair of Engine

VII) Rebabbitting of old white metal bearings

Repair & Overhauling of Engine
Repair & Overhauling of Engine
Repair of Intermediate Shaft
Repair of Intermediate Shaft
Author is Mr. Raj Shahani, Managing Director of the company. He is having 40 years of experience in providing onsite repair services related to high capacity engines across the world. He has designed and developed the portable crankshaft grinding machine to save time and money.
For more information regarding onsite repair services, please free to write us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Crankshaft Grinding & Crankshaft Polishing | Onsite Grinding & Polishing of Crankshaft by Revolutionary Portable Equipment – RA Power Solutions

Crankshaft journal and crankshaft crank pin diameter should be ground and polished to attain a surface finish of 15 microinches or better. Again the maintenance of taper and ovality of crankpin and crankshaft main journal has to be within the limit recommended by the manufacturer. Generally, the limits are within 0.02 to 0.05 mm depending on the diameter of the crankpin and main journal. Till few years back it was a monopoly of few European companies undertaking onsite crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing jobs charging exorbitant prices from the shipping companies and the power plants who had no option but to get the job of onsite crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing done from them.

Onsite Crankshaft Grinding & Polishing Machine
Onsite Crankshaft Grinding & Polishing Machine

RA Power Solutions have been extending crankshaft grinding, crankshaft polishing, maintenance and repair of high capacity engines for last forty years. Out of our experience we have developed and manufacture onsite crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing machine having the range from 30 mm to 700 mm. The onsite crankshaft grinding machine has brought down the cost of repair of crankshaft and have broken the monopoly of the European service providers. The onsite crankshaft grinding machine manufactured by RA Power Solutions has the following features:

I) The onsite crankshaft grinding and polishing machine is portable, lightweight and can be easily taken to the site all over the world.

II) The crankshaft grinding & polishing machine is portable and can be inserted from the inspection window. The crankpin grinding and polishing can be done without removing the crankshaft from the engine block.

III) The machine is designed and manufactured as per the customer’s requirement. For example, We have supplied machines for the crankshaft having a small bearing width or limited space.

Vibration Less Crankshaft Grinding Machine
Vibration Less Crankshaft Grinding Machine

IV) The crankshaft grinder machine is capable of maintaining taper and ovality of crankpin or main journal as per the tolerances stipulated. It can achieve even a close tolerance of 0.01 mm in terms of taper and ovality. Surface finish far better than the international standard is achievable.

V) The onsite crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing machine is easy to operate and maintain. Onsite training by our experienced technicians is provided.

VI) The cost of the crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing machine is low and affordable.

Onsite Crankshaft Grinder
Onsite Crankshaft Grinder

We have sold more than 70 crankshaft grinding and crankshaft polishing machines all over the world to leading drydocks, shipping companies, diesel power plants. Repair workshops, etc.

Author is Mr. Raj Shahani, Managing Director of the company. He is having 40 years of experience in grinding of crankshaft, polishing of crankshaft and all services related to repair of engines and supporting equipments. He has designed and developed the portable crankshaft grinding machine to save time and money.

We will be pleased to share more information regarding onsite crankshaft grinding and polishing machine, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Crankshaft Grinding Machine Ready for Dispatch
Crankshaft Grinding Machine Ready for Dispatch
Onsite Grinding Machine for Small Diameter
Onsite Grinding Machine for Small Diameter

Grinding and Polishing of Crankshaft | Repair of Crankshaft | Crankpin | Crankshaft Reconditioning – RA Power Solutions

RA Power Solutions with an experience of forty years provide you with a team of experienced technicians repair of crankshaft onsite, overhauling and maintenance of diesel engine, metal stitching and all the repair jobs related to engine room on a vessel or land-based diesel power plants. We possess precision and latest design of equipments to execute the repairs strictly as per the international norms and maintain the tolerances stipulated by the manufacturer.

Crankshaft Grinding & Polishing on Moving Vessel
Crankshaft Grinding & Polishing on Moving Vessel

RA Power solutions have a mission to provide world class repair services of crankshaft without compromising on the life of crankshaft. The minimum diameter of crankpin and main journal is reduced to maintain the originality of the crankshaft. This again is possible due to the combination of experienced technicians and the lattest design of tools we possess. It is observed that in most of the cases the repairs are not successful as the tool used for the grinding of crankshaft is either out dated and not able to fit on the crankshaft due to space limitations, less bearing width or equipment not designed to give the results as desired.

Crankshaft Grinding & Polishing in Diesel Power Plant
Crankshaft Grinding & Polishing in Diesel Power Plant

RA Power Solutions is the only company which designs its own tooling according to the space available at the site which helps us to grind and maintain the crankshaft tolerances as per the manufacturer’s specifications The main advantage of onsite machining and onsite reconditioning of crankshaft is that there is no need for striping down the equipment which in most of the cases is not possible due to various restrictions.

RA Power Solutions being an Indian company execute the repair of crankshaft on the lowest prices in comparison to the European companies who used to dictate their prices and conditions without compromising on quality.

The onsite crankshaft repair services are extended to all type of industries – petrochemical, offshore and mining, steel, cement and manufacturing plant, marine and sugar plants, etc. We are confident of our quality and have executed repairs of more than 10,000 crankshafts worldwide.We have saved many crankshafts from rejection.Clients can also avail our consultancy services which after inspection of crankshaft advise the various methods of repair of crankshaft on site.

Inspection of Crankpin is in Process
Inspection of Crankpin is in Process
Repair of Crankpin by Specialized Tooling due to Space Constraint
Repair of Crankpin by Specialized Tooling due to Space Constraint

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We also provide services related to engine repair i.e. turbine shaft repair, alternator shaft repair, pump shaft repair, onsite machining, crankshaft machining, crankshaft grinding & polishing, propeller shaft repair, metal locking & metal stitching of engine block, rebabbitting of bearings, connecting rod repair, etc.

The author is Mr. Raj Shahani, Managing Director of RA Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd. He has 40 years of experience in working on large crankshafts and Diesel Engines.

For more information, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Repair of Crankpin is in Process
Repair of Crankpin is in Process
Crankpin Machining by Onsite Crankshaft Grinder
Crankpin Machining by Onsite Crankshaft Grinder

Compressor Crankshaft Grinding | Marine Crankshaft Grinding | Engine Crankshaft Grinding and Polishing – RA Power Solutions

RA Power Solutions is known as a leader in Offering Onsite Repair of Crankshaft world wide with forty years of experience in this field, the company’s endeavor is always to save the Crankshaft from the rejection.

Crankshaft Grinding 550 mm diameter
Crankshaft Grinding 550 mm diameter

The crankshaft which meet with serious accident and are even rejected by the European Repair Companies are attended by Ra Power Solutions and are successfully repaired. This is possible because of having the technicians who have hand on experience of repairing more than ten thousand Crankshafts.

All Crankshafts are initially checked and Inspected to ensure that they are acceptable for reuse or for repair. The Onsite Crankshaft Grinding and Crankshaft Polishing is undertaken through the window of the engine block. Due to continuous Innovation in design and technology of Crankshaft Grinding Machines manufactured and used by us, it is possible to maintain the dimensional tolerances strictly as per the Original Equipment manufacturer. The Crankshaft Grinding and Polishing is done in minimum possible time. Thus reducing the breakdown time of the equipment considerably.

Crankshaft Grinding Mirrless Blackstone
Crankshaft Grinding Mirrless Blackstone
Crankshaft Grinding Wartsila 18 V32
Crankshaft Grinding Wartsila 18 V32

Presently we are undertaking Crank-pin and Main Journal grinding and repair up to 700 mm and are in process of increasing the capacity up to 1000 mm.

We undertake Onsite Crankshaft Grinding of all popular makes of engine and their model. Few of them are as following-
Wartsila 6R32, 12V32, 18v32. Mirrlees Black Stone ESL, MAJOR K series Generators, Ruston, Allen, Yanmar, MAN B& W, Daihatsu engine etc.

For more details, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com or call us on +91-9582647131

On Site Turbine Shaft Grinding-1
On Site Turbine Shaft Grinding
Crankshaft Repair
Onsite Crankshaft Repair
Insitu Crankshaft Grinding
Insitu Crankshaft Grinding
Repir of Crankshaft MAN B& W
Repir of Crankshaft MAN B& W
Crankshaft Repair
Crankshaft Repair
Offshore Grinding of Crankshaft is in Process
Offshore Grinding of Crankshaft is in Process

Crankshaft Reconditioning | Crankshaft Machining | Crankshaft Repair | Crankshaft Grinding – RA Power Solutions

RA Power Solutions is having more than forty years of experience in reconditioning of Crankshaft of large marine engines and engines installed in Power plants.

Diesel Engine Ready for Grinding & Repair
Diesel Engine Ready for Grinding & Repair

The onsite crankshaft repair and grinding is undertaken by RA Power Solutions experienced technicians for diameter ranging from 30 mm to 700 mm which cover almost all the crankshafts used for different applications. It is generally observed that due to non-experience or lack of knowledge of the companies undertaking reconditioning of Crankshaft misguide the end users resulting to serious breakdown and considerable higher expense.

Onsite Grinding of Crankpin by RA Power Solutions
Onsite Grinding of Crankpin by RA Power Solutions

RA Power Solutions has undertaken reconditioning of Crankshaft exceeding ten thousand numbers and recommends following situation for reconditioning of the Crankshaft.

Recommendation for reconditioning of Crankshaft:

Crankpin Before Grinding
Crankpin Before Grinding

I.) It is recommended to undertake Crankshaft repair in case taper and ovality exceeds the limit specified in Maintenance manual of engine manufacturer.
II. )  In case due to accident, deep line marks or depression is developed.
III. ) Reconditioning of Crankshaft is recommended in case higher hardness is observed due to seizer of bearings or any other reason.
IV.) Development of surface crack
V.) Loss of alignment.
VI.) In certain cases, although the dimensions of CR Pin and Main Journal are observed within the limit, but due to rough surface observed on Cr Pin and of Main Journal, surface require polishing.

Above suggestions are given for reconditioning of Crankshaft. It is always advisable to send photographs and brief Inspection report to RA Power Solutions for free recommendation as how to repair Crankshaft successfully.

For more information, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com or call us on +91-9582647131

Crankpin After Onsite Grinding & Repair
Crankpin After Onsite Grinding & Repair
Grinding of Crankpin by Onsite Crankshaft Grinding Machine
Grinding of Crankpin by Onsite Crankshaft Grinding Machine

Onsite Crankshaft Repair | Crankshaft Grinding | Crankshaft Reconditioning – RA Power Solutions

Onsite Crankshaft Repair | Crankshaft Grinding | Crankshaft Reconditioning is undertaken by RA Power Solutions Pvt Ltd for last four decades. The company has technicians who are trained to undertake Onsite Crankshaft Repairs strictly as per manufacturers specifications stipulated in the manual.
All technicians have valid CDC and can travel in a short notice anywhere in the world to board the vessel. The Onsite Crankshaft repair and onsite crankshaft grinding equipment used by RA Power Solutions has a main structure manufactured out of Titanium steel which results to absorption of Vibration while the Crankshaft Grinding machine is in operation in high seas with turbulence. The quality after the reconditioning and repair of Crankshaft is of Great Importance and is maintained. Following checks are undertaken.

Repair of MAN Engine is in Process
                  Repair of MAN Engine is in Process

Quality of a Re-Machined Pin or Journal
The quality of a pin or journal after machining has to meet following requirements:

I) Geometrical  tolerance in accordance with manufacturer specifications.

II) A blueing check has to be carried out on the re-machining surface. Blueing Shells: Min. Width equivalent to Journal or Crank-pin dimensions respectively. Min. Length equivalent to 1/5 of Journal or crank-pin circumference.

III) Required contact area:  Min. 35% equally distributed over width and circumferences.

IV) Free of hairline cracks: Journal or crank pin to be tested by mean of Magnetic Particle crack detection method.

V) Free of Martensite:  The microstructure is to be tested for edged areas of martensite structure will replicas or micro etching with 5% nitric acid in alcohol ( Nital) applied to the pin after polishing.

VI) Maximum admissible hardness of remaining local hardspots : However such local hardspots are not tolerated around the fillets and the bores for lubrication.

For more information, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Onsite Grinding & Repair of Crankpin is in Process
Onsite Grinding & Repair of Crankpin is in Process
Onsite Repair & Grinding of Crankshaft
Onsite Repair & Grinding of Crankshaft

 

Cylinder Liners | Cylinder Sleeves– Marine & Diesel Engine – RA Power Solutions

The quality of cylinder liners and cylinder sleeve is of great importance. Cylinder liners and cylinder sleeves manufactured and exported by RA Power Solutions have the OEM tolerances and standard. The cylinder liners are manufactured by centrifugal process and in-house machining maintaining the tolerances is done. The honing of cylinder liner is of great importance. The Chris Marine honing machines are used to maintain the criss cross pattern which is essentially required for retaining of oil.

 

CKD Skoda Cylinder Liners & Sleeves Manufacturer
CKD Skoda Cylinder Liners & Sleeves Manufacturer

We manufacture cylinder liners up to the length of 1500 mm irrespective of their material composition and design. The cylinder liners and cylinder sleeves for all popular makes of engine and their models are available ex-stock. RA Power Solutions also manufactures cylinder liners according to the sample or the manufacturing drawing provided by the user. Cylinder liners and cylinder sleeves for various applications including compressors, forging hammers are manufactured.

The cost of cylinder liners is low in comparison to liners supplied by engine manufacturer. Thus it results to considerable reduction in the cost.

The cylinder liners are exported all over the world. Each cylinder liner prior to dispatch is subject to  dimensional inspection by quality control department. The inspection reports are shared with the client.

We stand guarantee for the satisfactory performance of liners for the period of 18 months from the date of dispatch or 6000 hours of operation whichever is earlier.

Cylinder Liners Manufactured for Marine Engine
Cylinder Liners Manufactured for Marine Engine
Cylinder Liners & Sleeves of MAN Diesel Engine
Cylinder Liners & Sleeves of MAN Diesel Engine

For more information, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com or call us on 91-9582647131

Crankshaft Grinding Machine | Crankshaft Grinder| Global Onsite Repairs– RA Power Solutions

Engine population is rapidly increasing for shipping industry, power plants and various applications. In most of the cases engines are used not only for the emergency purpose but as a base load. The continuous running of diesel engine results to wear and tear of crankpin and main journal of the crankshaft. In certain cases taper and ovality more than the permissible limit is developed in the crankpin and the crankshaft main journal.

Damaged Crankpin of Engine
Damaged Crankpin of Engine
Inspection of Engine Before Grinding
Inspection of Engine Before Grinding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The disassembly of the crankshaft from the main engine and to send it to the designated workshop is a lengthy process. This is now outdated. RA Power Solutions having the experience of more than four decades in repair of crankshaft have developed a portable, light weight onsite crankshaft grinding machine which can be taken to the site as an accompanying baggage. The onsite crankshaft grinding machine has following features:

 I) Light in weight, can be carried to the site easily.

II) Portable nature of onsite crankshaft grinding machine facilitates it to insert from the inspection window and undertake grinding and polishing of crankpin.

III) Machine is designed and can maintain the taper and ovality within 0.02 mm. This meets with the OEMs tolerances.

IV) Surface finish and other parameters can be maintained as per the international norms.

V) Onsite crankshaft grinding machine is easy to operate

VI) Onsite training is provided for smooth running of crankshaft grinding machine.

VII) More than 70 machines sold all over the world and performing satisfactory.

VIII) Insitu crankshaft grinding machines are low priced and recommend for repair workshops, shipping and engineering companies and power plants.

Inspection of Connecting Rod on Board a Vessel
Inspection of Connecting Rod on Board a Vessel
Inspection of Engine is in Process
Inspection of Engine is in Process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crankshaft grinding machines exported to various countries including Dubai, Singapore, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Greece, Qatar, Nigeria, South America, etc.

For more information, please email us on info@rapowersolutions.com

Grinding of Crankpin is in Process
Grinding of Crankpin is in Process
Crankpin After Grinding
Crankpin After Grinding